How Power Corrupts in Heart of Darkness, the Crucible, and the Great Gatsby

Given the brutal nature of human history, it’s no surprise we have a saying that absolute power corrupts absolutely; just ask the nine-fingered Frodo Baggins. The theme comes up as regularly in literature as it does on the news, daring us to imagine whether we’d act any differently in the same situation.

A classic example can be found in Joseph Conrad’s novel Heart of Darkness, which follows Charlie Marlow’s journey through the colonial Congo in search of a renegade ivory trader named Mr. Kurtz. Though once a respected businessman, Kurtz is intoxicated by what he perceives to be a savage wilderness full of ignorant impressionable natives. Making the most of his status as a white European outsider, Kurtz reinvents himself as a god among the Congolese.

Despite the fact that they result is anything but pretty (unless you’ve always dreamed of owning a jungle fortress complete with impaled heads), Marlow finds himself intrigued and even impressed by Kurtz’s animal magnetism and wild abandon. Marlow eventually completes his mission and returns to prim and proper England, but his ambiguous feelings toward the psychopath leaves us wondering whether he would have fared any better in Kurtz shoes.

One complicating factor in Heart of Darkness is that both Kurtz and Marlow are well-to-do, white, male Europeans who perceive themselves as the cream of the human crop. In this sense, they’re both already in positions of immense power – as far as 19th century politics are concerned. To get a more well-rounded perspective, let’s take a look at some corruptible characters whose station in life isn’t quite so peachy.

Being a young, unmarried female in sixteenth-century Puritan New England can’t have been a barrel of laughs, but as Arthur Miller’s The Crucible shows us, there were certain cards a woman could play. After getting caught dancing in the forest at night, several of Salem’s young girls find themselves accused of dealing with the devil. Because of the absurdity of their criminal justice system, they have no choice but to confess to witchcraft in order to escape punishment.

Not content to simply save their hides, however, the girls make the most of their moment in the spotlight by lashing out against the community that implicated them; listing off supposed accomplices, they bring charges against rivals, nay-sayers, and anyone who happens to give them the stink eye. The accusations spiral out of control until dozens of townspeople are dead, imprisoned, or permanently humiliated. The needlessness of such attacks demonstrates that the lowly in society are no more resilient against the temptation of power than the highest.

At the risk of complicating the overall argument, however, we must remember that not everyone in Salem gives in to the hysteria; several people refuse to partake in the power struggle, thereby forfeiting their own lives for the sake of integrity. In fact, it would be misleading to suggest that power as a corruptive force is some kind of literary constant. Just take, for instance, F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby.

Lovesick for his upper-crusty former sweetheart, Jay Gatz spends years making a fortune through illegal bootlegging so that he can buy a lavish mansion, throw wild parties, and take on a swanky alter-ego just to impress her. Unlike his wealthy cohorts, however, his behavior is never corrupted by his huge income and high status. In fact, Gatsby is one of the most admirable characters in fiction precisely because his motives remain entirely pure – a fact which is tragically emphasized by the rotten behavior of his entitled, so-called friends.

On the one hand, the idea that not everyone is susceptible to corruption is a comforting one – especially considering that hierarchies exist at every possible level of society. At the same time, however, the idea that power doesn’t necessarily corrupt is much more complicating than the idea that it does; after all, if absolute power corrupts absolutely, it pretty much takes personal responsibility out of the equation. The second that old saying changes to “power corrupts some and not others,” society loses one of its most time-honored scapegoats.

Source by Paul Thomson

Incubus and Sucubus Mythology

Details of the attacks by an incubus/succubus vary form the mild to the horrific. Victims generally claim to feel the presence of some entity lying on top of them, making breathing difficult. In extreme cases the individual may feel he or she is be suffocated… even strangled. Other people claim to have seen horrible images, including black shapes, snakes, demonic forms and even the grinning and malevolent face of the incubus/succubus. There have been reports of heavy pressure on the chest, the sensation of biting teeth or limbs being painfully twisted. People have spoken of their eyes being open during the attack, but being unable to anything except darkness… unable to gasp or cry out, unable to breath or feel or hear anything. Details of being unable to move and being pulled into the bed make uncomfortable reading – but not as terrible as the mental anguish. Some people report feeling an evil presence (or even presences) and sensing imminent death. Imagine being unable to see who or what is assaulting you. Or – in the worse case scenario – gasping fresh air into your lungs after an attack, relieved that your ‘nightmare” is over… only for the attack to start all over again, worse this time because you are awake and more aware of the presence.

The male version of this demon is the incubus, and while it drains a woman of her own strength it has an even more sinister agenda. It is supposed to mate with its victim to produce more incubi. The result of this unearthly union is known as a cambion, and when the child is born it appears to be a stillbirth because it shows no obvious sign of life. Its eyes may blink and its limbs may move – it may even speak, but it has no pulse and its breathing is invisible. Around the age of seven years the child will start to behave as a normal human child, but there are sharp differences. Not only is a cambion very beautiful; it often displays an evil character bestowed upon it by the demonic parent. It is also very intelligent and able to persuade even the most resolute human to carry out its wishes. Merlin, the wizard from King Arthur’s classic legends, was supposedly the product of an incubus and a mortal woman, with some legends claiming Merlin’s mother was actually a nun.

At one time there was a concern regarding the gender of incubi and succubi – it was claimed they were actually one demonic entity with the ability to change its sex depending upon the gender of its victim. It would transform itself into an incubus after it had been with a man, and use the seed it had collected upon the female victim. If the woman did conceive the result would still be a cambion, because although the child’s genetic background was human the demonic intervention guaranteed paranormal development.

Stories about incubus/succubus demons have been told throughout history, and from all over the world. Here is a selection of some of the better-known characters:

Jewish folklore tells of Lilu, an incubus who visits women while they sleep. His feminine counterpart is Lilin. These demons were a particular source of anxiety for mothers because they were known to kidnap children. Ardat Lili was another succubus who would visit men at night to ensure the continuation of her demonic race. The incubus was Irdu Lili, who would visit human women to ensure they would produce his offspring.

El Trauco is a mythical dwarf residing on the Chilean island of Chiloé, who despite his hideous appearance has the ability to seduce women. His piercing gaze is feared by male islanders because it has the ability to kill. However there have been occasions when a strong willed man has been able to secure the services of El Trauco for one year, simply by fixing his own gaze upon this incubus first. These stories are rare, however, because El Trauco is able to sense human presence long before the person is sighted. So powerful is his magnetism that selected women (usually sleeping) will instantly fall in love with him, aided by the fact he disguises himself as a wealthy landlord or even a priest.

El Trauco’s wife is the equally dreadful La Fiura, an incredibly ugly and shameless little woman who will cast a sickness spell upon anyone who rejects her advances. So foul is her breath it will scar a human and turn animals lame. Despite this she is an irresistible temptress who, after using her victims, will drive them insane.

Encantado is a Brazilian shapeshifter who spends his days as a Boto dolphin frolicking in the Amazon River. At night he takes on the appearance of a handsome young man who seduces young girls. He always wears a hat, because his head retains a prominent dolphin-like appearance when in human form. Encantado is very partial to parties and music, and despite coming from a utopian world craves the pleasures and hardships of human life. Encantado can also bewitch a person to make him/her do their bidding or turn someone into an Encantado. At their most extreme they can inflict sickness, insanity or death upon their victims. Fortunately for these freshwater dolphins (yes, they do exist) it is considered bad luck to kill a Boto. And do not make eye contact with one, or you will suffer nightmares for the rest of your life.

Zanizibar, an island off the coast of the African country of Tanzania, is the chosen abode of Popo Bawa, an incubus who selects male victims. His name means “bat-wing”, and refers to his shadow rather than his physical appearance, which varies thanks to Popo Bawa’s shapeshifting powers. During daylight hours he looks like an ordinary human being, but at night transforms into a shadowy ghostlike figure with a dreadful odour. He makes himself known by scratching on roofs and at windows with long talons. He also threatens his victims with longer and more vicious assaults should they dare tell anyone Popo Bawa has decided to pay them a visit. Yet it is claimed he becomes angry should anyone deny his existence.

Hungary’s Liderc hatches from the first egg of a black hen, and is sometimes called “miracle chicken”. Liderc flies through the night skies as a fiery light, sprinkling flames on the earth below. On landing it will shapeshift into a human and access houses through keyholes and chimneys, visible to its victims as a dead relative or loved one. It brings sickness and death to its victims, as well as making the house very dirty before departing. Birch branches and burning incense may stop Liderc from entering the house, but some claim it is very fast and hides in cemeteries. Another story claims Liderc attaches itself to a victim, shapeshifting into either an incubus or succubus depending on its victim’s gender. In a twist on the vampire legend it may drink blood from its host, making the victim weak and tired. This Liderc likes to hoard gold, so its human companion becomes wealthy. This creature can be exorcised by either sealing it inside a tree hollow or persuading it to perform some difficult task, like carrying water with a sieve or moving sand with a rope. A second version of the Liderc is much smaller and live in boxes, pockets of discarded clothes, among rags or in glass bottles. Again the human will become wealthy, and may even find himself bestowed with mystical powers… but in exchange for his soul.

The “Hexanhammer” is a book written during the fifteenth century. Also known by its Latin name Malleus Maleficarum or “The Hammer of Witches”, it contains information pertaining to witchcraft, and includes a section on the five methods used to stop attacks by a succubus or incubus:

Exorcism – an ancient and very common practice, whereby a priest or other religious leader calls upon God and, together with religious symbols such as Holy Water and Crosses, to cast out the demon. On occasion Angels and/or Archangels may also be called upon to assist with the exorcism.

Sacramental Confession – a sacred rite designed to protect by bestowing a blessing of spiritual grace through Christ; similar to baptism or confession.

Angelic Salutation – “The Angels’ Greeting” calls for intervention from Mary, Mother of Jesus by repeating two verses from Saint Luke’s Gospel in the New Testament.

Excommunication – spiritual leaders will ban the afflicted individual from the community until the demon leaves, or until the victim asked for spiritual intervention.

Transportation – moving the victim from his/her house to another place or town where he/she will be safe from the demon.

Unfortunately it appears not all succubi/incubi will respond to attempts to cast them out. A Franciscan friar named Ludovico observed: “They do not obey exorcists, have no dread of exorcisms, show no reverence for holy things, at the approach of which they are not the least overawed”.

Source by Sarah Todd

What is Wicca – The Path of the Goddess

Wicca is an earth and nature-honoring religion that celebrates the cycle of the year and the duality of divinity. It stresses living in harmony with all creatures and the earth. It honors a supreme power which is personified into male and female aspects as the Goddess and God. This is the Goddess and God that is contained in all nature and in ourselves.

Considered a mystery religion, Wicca, in general, is based on the pre-Christian spiritual traditions of England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales. Its origins can be traced even further back to Paleolithic times when people worshiped a Hunter God and a Fertility Goddess. Still it is considered a modern religion and not the Old Religion of those ancient times. Another way to put this is that Wicca is not THE religion but a religion sitting under the umbrella of Paganism much like Catholics, Methodists, etc., sit under the umbrella of Christianity.

Wicca is practiced in a group (coven or grove) or solitary (by oneself). The goal of a Wiccan is to achieve balance and harmony within nature and oneself. This makes Wicca a highly individualistic religion. The large number of different sects within the Craft give the impression that no two groups practice the same way.

Thus Wicca is a religion of clergy, not followers. Each person who seriously pursues the Craft, whether it be through study in a particular tradition, or through self-teaching and private learning, has the choice to become a priest or priestess of Wicca. Note that the word wicca is an Anglo-Saxon word meaning “wise.” Each Wiccan is struggling to be wise within oneself and to have an direct connection with the divine power.

Their personal faith is influenced by the religious experiences they have. Often the experiences instill knowledge or religious truths in ways that are not fully understood by the individual. At Wicca’s core, there are things that can only be experienced and not explained.

Wicca’s main basis for ethical behavior rely on two basic premises… The Wiccan Rede, or rule: An it harm none, do as ye will ” or slightly updated: “If it harm none, do what you will.” Which means that as long as you don’t do anything that will hurt anyone (including yourself) it is allowed. The other major premise is the Three-fold Law – whatever you send out into the universe, be it good or bad, you can expect to return to you threefold.

Wicca is entirely compatible with the scientific method, and it is believed that all the Gods and forces that are worked with are quite natural, not supernatural at all. Wicca encompasses a beautiful, satisfyingly natural way of life. It is about worshiping life and the love of nature and its power in all living things. Wicca believes in divinity in everything living and natural, as well as karmic laws, and reincarnation.

Wicca is an official, legal religion in the U.S., and a fast-growing one at that. Judges have ruled that witches must be allowed to lead prayers at local government meetings, and that Wiccan convicts must be provided with requested “sacred objects” so they can perform spells in their cells. Wiccan covens have been recognized as nonprofit religious organizations by the Internal Revenue Service.

So Wicca is a religion which involves communion with the Earth, communion with a God/Goddess (or several of them if you’re a polytheist), living in peace with yourself and others, and giving to those that gave to you. Witchcraft, by the way, is what Wiccans practice. Wicca is centered around the use of positive thought, positive action and love of nature to create an atmosphere of positive energies which are then used for our own benefits.

Wicca teaches that there is certainly a higher power, namely the Goddess and God, often referred to solely as the Goddess, but that the Goddess is always attainable, for She is everywhere: in the tree, in the leaf, in the ant, within ourselves… To be a member of Wicca, one must seek rather than be sought after.

Wiccans do not worship Satan. Satan is part of the Christian religion, a separate religious path.

Source by C. Tori

Doing Theology in Today’s Africa – Issues and Trends in Nigeria


Since the mid-1950s, African theologians like John Mbiti, Edward Fashole-Luke, Desmond Tutu, Vincent Mulago and Harry Sawyerr, Bolaji Idowu, Byang Kato and others have made it their mission to bring the gospel to bear on Africans’ lives and thought-worlds — to make Christianity indigenous on a continent that first heard the gospel in New Testament times. It would therefore be a misleading oversimplification to state that Germany, America, Britain and Africa respectively created corrupted, corrected and copied theology. Africa has something meaningful to offer. This provides supportive evidence for a realistic assessment of the issues and trends of the Church in Africa.


The term contextualization could be defined as simplifying, clarifying and giving ownership to the Bible and the Gospel of Jesus Christ to a specific community of faith. If the system for doing so is therefore only understood by the stranger or alien, then one has closed the channels for incarnation of the Word. The researcher was impressed when he visited several churches in Lagos, Nigeria during a field study and noted areas of contextualization. The Anglican and Aladura churches have some programmes in the native language. Even the Catholic church is no longer conducting the service in Latin but English. African instruments were used and African choruses were ministered. Dancing and clapping are not uncommon. An assessment of Christianity from the Portuguese explorations in the fifteenth century to the middle of the seventh century reveals that there was a relative failure on the part of the missionaries in the presentation of the gospel. They did not take the culture of the people into consideration. The Roman Catholics demanded monogamy from their converts, but they did not show how the unwanted wives could be resettled. Christianity was portrayed as a European invention. Usry and Keener (1996) provocatively titled their text Black man’s religion: can Christianity be Afrocentric? It is so titled, not of course to imply that non-Blacks are excluded, but to point out that biblical Christianity is a Black religion as much as a white one. The issue of slavishly accepting or rather adopting any thing from the west should be treated with caution. The article, Halloween in a cross-cultural perspective, is a passionate account of the vulnerability of children which the Harry Porter series is taking advantage of. The new repacking of witchcraft in a fictitious novel is attractive to children (and adults) since it is user friendly.

Schreiter (1985) presents an excellent and very relevant text that clearly teaches how one can understand culture so that the gospel message takes root. Ownership of the Bible must be given to a community of faith in a given place. For instance, an Igbo and by extension, an African, will clearly understand the humiliation Christ went through since the writer clearly expresses that to humiliate someone who is either popular or rich is worse than to kill him, a message which the African understands. The cultural sensitivity of Dan Wooding in Blind faith in cross-cultural perspective, Part 1, enabled him to reasonably establish intercultural rapport in the men’s breakfast meeting at the Pasadena First Church of the Nazarene. In responding to this invitation and willingly giving generously, an individual eventually received five fold merely out of his blind faith rather than a display of supernatural acts like speaking in tongues.



Boer (2003) identifies two major issues which are affecting the Nigerian church; “the first is corruption which has penetrated every level of society…” (Boer 2003, 31). One must however note that corruption is an issue facing both developing and developed nations. The church continues to be guilty of many of the kinds of corruption which characterize the society as a whole, an issue that shocked Dr. Eze as he observes in his article Worldview issues on corruption…. He realistically argues however that “the survey of CPI (Corruption Perceptions Index) on the levels of corruption in countries they researched is not based on hard empirical data… (but) on the experience and perceptions of those who are most directly confronted with the realities of corruption” (Eze 2004, 1).


The second issue facing Christian spirituality according to Boer is Islam. The subject of his book Nigeria’s decade of blood, vol.1 is Christian-Muslim relations. “If corruption has demonized Nigeria”, Boer argues “Christian-Muslim relations have bedeviled it” (Boer 2003, 1). He steers Christianity and Islam into positive channels for national building and suspects that there is a great risk that Nigerians will grow tired of religious riots and either return to a sanitized form of traditional religion or to an African version of secularism. Every Christian should read his text and note that Christians in western nations are now fighting the very secularism they produced through their infighting.

African Traditional Religion

Any realistic attempt to do theology in Africa must take into consideration the influence of African Traditional Religion in the lives of the people. Dr. Eze did a very relevant study of several manifestations of God among the tribes of Lardin Garbes. The assumption that God was introduced to Africa by the Europeans is a misleading oversimplification. In addition to the family and village deities, the Kamwe people believe in a transcendent and universal God. Dr. Eze (2004) argues that Africans knew about the Creator or the Supreme God inspite of their polytheistic understanding and used his grandfather, Mr. Muogbo Eze as supportive evidence. Even though they have the faulty notion that He is far away thus justifying appeasing the lesser deities to reach him, the concept of the way to the Creator is still present among them. Paul uses the belief in the unknown God to minister to his audience. Christians should also use this concept of the way to the Creator already present in the worldview of the Kamwe to present Jesus to them. God amazingly works within human cultures (irrespective of different language, race or ethnicity) to unfold His plans. This is in consonance with the philosophy behind the phrase ‘redemptive analogy’ which is so-called because it facilitates human understanding of redemption within human culture. Its God-given purpose is to precondition the mind in a culturally significant way to recognize Jesus as Messiah. Outside of Scripture, it appears that God’s general revelation is the source of redemptive analogies worldwide. It is relatively easier for one to use the supernatural orientation of the African to win him to Christ.

Growth of cities

Perhaps the most urgent issue facing the church in Africa today is the rapid growth of cities. The clash of cultures, and religions, desperate poverty, AIDS, horrific numbers of street children, pressures on traditional morality, problems of temporary and unstable work, and the lack of training for what few jobs there are brought home to the reader in moving and perceptive accounts of the people with whom Shorter has direct contact. A case in point is the city of Lagos whose population of over twelve million is more than that of Sierra Leone, Liberia and Gambia combined.

Numerical growth of the church

At the beginning of the twentieth century, it was estimated that about three percent of the people on the African continent professed to be Christians and that this number significantly increased to about fifty percent towards the end of the century. There is every reason to believe that the church will continue to record significant growth. Ajah (1996) even attributes this ‘swollen membership’ to the church’s wise use of music which is seen as an outstanding highway into the hearts of most Africans. All the churches visited by the researcher during the field research were packed full. During the researcher’s stay in Nigeria (2002-2005), it was observed that churches with more musical instruments and skilled instruments generally attracted more worshipers than those with few.


A contemporary trend to avoid suffering at all cost has led to the ‘Prosperity Gospel’ which stresses faith in claiming blessings as they name them. At the risk of oversimplification and distortion, this gospel teaches, among other things that:

1. Every Christian is created to be materially and financially buoyant.

2. Christians who are in a state of prolonged financial predicament are ignorant of God’s design.

3. For the manifestation of the reversal of breakthrough, the aspirant must demonstrate his expectancy by blessing the ‘man of God’ first.

Christians are therefore encouraged not to accept suffering as their portion. Anyone who is suffering is either living in sin or is not standing on the promises of God for his showers of blessing. This teaching was reflected in the Pentecostal church visited during the field study. The number of offerings raised in the Pentecostal and Anglican churches was astonishing.

Training of church leaders

The church in Africa has made amazing progress during the twentieth-century. It has grown from just a handful of training institutions to hundreds of seminaries. This is an indication that the African church in the twenty-first century is going to be much more educated church. In the churches covered in the field study, the researcher observed that the pastors of the Aladura and Pentecostal Churches visited, Superior Evangelist E.M. Babatunde and Rev. Mike Ohiorenoya, are doctorate holders. It is indubitable that Catholic and Anglican priests are academically trained.

The role of women

The central message of the Christian mission is that of salvation, and by implication, liberation. With this message, the church should take cognizance of the ‘imbalance’ in the male-dominated African culture. In the second part of The agony of the ‘passion’ in cultural lenses, Dr. Eze (2004) analyses the concept of a theology that is culturally driven. He realistically argues that any image of manhood outside the Messiah is culturally driven and misleading. The church should learn the African concept of muntu, that is, person. Societal changes demand that the church make some modifications in women’s role. The dynamics which women now exhibit in the wider society and in the Aladura church visited in particular have challenged the subordinate roles offered by some other churches. The researcher observes the role of women at West Africa Theological Seminary where they serve in very important capacities such as Registrar, Missions Director, Ag. Director of Spiritual Formation and lecturers. More and more women are going to become pastors as more seminaries are opening doors to more female students and lecturers. With the ascension of women into leadership positions, perhaps the church will see a gentler and softer style of church leadership.


Mediocre spiritual growth

Indubitably, a visible trend is a continuous and explosive growth of the African church. However, there is a very big challenge associated with it. This has already started manifesting itself in contemporary Christianity. The problem is numerical without a corresponding spiritual growth. For instance, the dressing of church members, if not checked, would lead to serious problem in the church. In the Pentecostal church visited, the researcher was so happy when he was moved from the seat he was occupying to a special seat reserved for visitors since the dressing of the lady sitting in front of him was indecent. She was putting on a bandless trousers which exposed a considerable portion of her pink underwear. The preaching was very loud and emotional but devoid of substance. The church must resist mediocrity with the same commitment that it resists compromise. The researcher observed that the churches visited did not have a very clear discipleship training programme. Winning souls for Christ without a systematic discipleship programme is to some extent equivalent to begetting sons for the devil.


In several churches today, the service is incomplete without a few prophecies, a healing or two, and a few demons cast out. Churches and ministries ‘compete’ with the most dramatic advertisements such as ‘Divine Explosion’, ‘Mountain of miracles’, ‘Supernatural sensation’ and similar expressions. Though it is good to stress the supernatural, the African church must realize that the daily occurrence of miracles is not the focus of the Bible. Building the church in Africa around the miraculous may tend to lead to a wrong emphasis. The primary commission of Jesus was to preach the gospel. Leaning on the miraculous in every service could therefore lead to fanaticism and deviation from the truth. In the Celestial Church of Christ visited during the field work, the researcher was called out of the service and taken to the back of the outside altar where visions and revelations, mostly untrue, from a prophetess about him were penned by a recorder. For instance, the prophetess observed that the researcher’s wife sometimes suffered from stomach ache. The question in one’s mind then is: how many normal women do not normally suffer from bellyache?


The education of the church is steadily improving. There are many Bible colleges and seminaries in Nigeria alone. Many of the universities and colleges of education have departments of religious studies. However, as more and more Africans are exposed to re-packed western ideas, African Christianity should fight very hard to avoid the anti-supernatural rationalism of the western church. Starting with the ‘Age of Reason’, the western church has gradually been more and more influenced by an anti-supernatural bias which arises from rationalism. Even though this has not yet really become a serious problem, a serious note of caution is that African Christians need to balance faith with reason.


In an attempt to ‘protect’ the Gospel, European missionaries under contextualized the message. As the church is now becoming more African, care must be taken so that the message is not over contextualized which could lead to syncretism (the mixing of religious beliefs). For instance, the overstress on visions and dreams in the Aladura church. Contextualization without syncretism is one of the major challenges facing the African Church in this century. The typical African, unlike his western counterpart has a supernaturalistic orientation. The African society gives more attention to religion while the west emphasizes on economics and material culture. One of the reasons why Pentecostalism has been well received in Africa is because many of the basic tenets are consistent with the African worldview. Some of these includes the supernatural, demons/evil spirits, divine healing, and emotional and physical expressions of worship. Dr. Eze clearly reveals that the Kamwe/Mubi in Nigeria (including Christians) go to animist priests. As he noted, “felt needs for supernatural power for solving certain problems that defy solution still drive people to animist priests” (Eze 2005, 5). The lesson to be learnt is the attitude of the Christian community that prayed for rain (with God honouring). This is a clear manifestation of the fact that the Christian God is alive or active in the affairs of men. If theology in Africa is to be meaningful, this point must be seriously noted otherwise the church will not be relevant and would be like Rip Van Wrinkle, the legendary character in Gulliver’s Travels who slept for decades only to wake up to find a completely changed world.


An unfortunate tendency within Christianity throughout church history is that whenever Christianity has achieved the majority status within a culture, it has become intolerant and sometimes abusive of other religions. The Crusades in the 10th century onwards could testify to this. The thin line between evangelism and tolerance of other religions has been a tightrope which Christians have not always walked very well. Several writers encourage tolerance between Christians and Muslims in Nigeria. Although Boer for instance blamed the latter for most of the religious conflicts, he also argues that there are some instances in which the former sometimes started later riots. The essence of his message to Christians and Muslims is respectively wholism and pluralism. Christians need to repent of their flirtations with the language and concepts of secularism in an environment shared with Muslims and move away from it by developing a more comprehensive worldview. Muslims, on the other hand, need to update their sense of pluralism. Nigeria is marked by a pluralistic situation that no longer allows the domination of one religion over all the people. Boer argues that the situation calls for changes in the attitude of Christians and Muslims ? they need to move from hostility to respect.


Any attempt to do theology in Africa must seriously take note of the afore-mentioned discussion. From the foregoing, it could be argued that not all the issues and trends are negative. Although care should be taken to avoid a church that is heavily inclined towards rationalism, prosperity, syncreticism, to mention but a few, the African church must be commended for its conscious effort to contextualize the Gospel and emphasize on training of its clergy. However, the rest of the paper further discusses several opportunities which must be wisely utilized for theology to be meaningful in Africa.

The age of the church

A significant proportion of the contemporary church is made up of young people. The estimated average age of churches visited during the field work is thirty. There is a possibility that this trend is not going to change. The church in Africa will continue to be a young church. This age group is going to continue to give to it much energy and enthusiasm. It will enable the church to have the strength to evangelize and impact the society. However, it could also make the church more susceptible to fanaticism, intolerance and unwise decisions. One must not forget that Nigerian proverb which states that the child on top of the tree cannot see what the elder sitting on the ground can see.

The church and the theological school

An increase in the number of theological institutions is a welcome development. However, the church and theological school have to work as a team to impact society since “the position between the two has almost become that of the church versus the theological school” (Turaki 1991, 31). Turaki evaluates areas of strengths and weaknesses in the assumed roles for each, and the theological implications of the dichotomy, together with the resulting competition, isolationism and assertions of autonomy to doing theology.

Curriculum development

It is necessary for theologians to revisit the curriculum in the seminary. It is questioned whether African seminaries should review, retrieve the history of western thought and the western church or instead launch into the depths of their own culture and tradition and correlate Scripture and tradition with African culture, roots, sources and riches. There are areas where the west could also learn from Africa. It is against this background that it is observed that “instead of competing or claiming superiority for various approaches, we need to exchange and share experiences, we need to understand one another and learn from each other” (Turaki 1991, 29). It is reasonably argued that, contrary to popular thought, Africa has had a definitive and significant effect on the development of the ecumenical movement in general and its mission made in particular. It was against this background that the Edinburgh Conference in 1910 introduced the idea of the whole Gospel by the whole church to the world.

Emphasis on justice

Justice is one of the most fundamental concepts of Christianity (and Judaism). It is a theme that must receive more emphasis in the African church. A society cannot be healthy without justice. In 1995, a group of Nigerian leaders became concerned about the injustice in the Nigerian society. This led to the Congress on Christian Ethics in Nigeria (COCEN) which took place in Abuja in November 1997. It was stressed that Christians are also guilty of ethical violations. Christian principles must be properly contextualized for Africa. There must be a clear understanding of the close link between religion and social/political issues, and faith and justice. The social teaching of the Church must not only to be studied and known, but also applications to the myriad problems facing Africa must be formulated and tried.

Respect for individual human rights

The rights of individuals must be protected. Refusing to grant a person a job because he or she is from the ‘wrong’ ethnic group is a violation of that person’s fundamental human rights. The researcher has observed for instance that Christians don’t normally come out in a unified force to clean the environment when the government gives the command every last Saturday in Freetown and Lagos. Night vigils can be conducted without necessarily using loud speakers that would disturb the peace of citizens who are resting.

Assistance to the needy

The teachings of the church should not unnecessarily emphasize on giving from congregation to the church but the other way round. One of the clearest teachings and examples of Jesus was related to compassion for the poor. It must be viewed as a fundamental responsibility of every culture to take care of its weak and needy members. Just giving a little money to a poor person must not satisfy Christians. Christianity must be involved in identifying the causes of poverty and addressing these problems. God has not called all Christians to be rich. Prosperity teachers must take note. However, He has called us to help meet the needs of the poor. Helping the needy require adequate housing is not just a governmental responsibility but also a responsibility of the church. The researcher was impressed when an appeal was made to assist the poor in the Aladura church visited. Free computer training was offered which enabled several youths to be empowered. The entire congregation was fed after the service. The researcher learnt that this is a regular occurrence.


A biblical fact of which theology must take account is that if God indeed is concerned with all peoples, then there is a theological continuity between the people of Israel and others (including Africa).

If the Christian faith is to have any real effect on African life, it must accept and address the spirit world. A Christianity that has no place for the supernatural speaks in alien tones. The culture of Africans must be realistically studied if any meaningfully impact could be made. Kalu brilliantly quotes P.O. Ajah’s summary of the expectations of the theology of the African church :

African theologians should programme towards realizing answers to what African theology has to say concerning witchcraft, black magic, demonic influences, occultism, spiritually induced sicknesses, spiritual guidance through divination or future predictions, divine healing, deliverance from and casting out of demons and evil spirits, appreciation of cultural values, liberation of the oppressed, relief from poverty and deprivation, human rights, democratization, ozo title and secret societies, reincarnation, death and the resurrection, the last judgement (Kalu 1978, 123).


Books and articles

Ajah, Paul. 1996. An Approach to African theology. Uburu : Truth and Life Publications.

Boer, Jan H. 2003. Nigeria’s decades of blood, Vol. 1. Belleville, Ontario : Essense Publishing.

Eze, Herbert. 2004. The agony of the “Passion” in cultural lenses (part two).

Available (online) : 9th March 2005.

_____________. Halloween in a cross-cultural perspective. Available (online): Accessed 11th March 2005.

Kalu, Agwu. 1978. The lights and shades of Christianity in West Africa. Umuahia : Charity Press.

McCain, Danny. 2000. The church in Africa in the 21st century. Africa Journal of Evangelical Theology.

19(2) : 105-130.

Schreiter, Robert J. 1985. Constructing local theologies. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books.

Turaki, Yusufu. 1991. The quest for cooperation, renewal and relevance in theological education. Africa Journal of Evangelical Theology 10(1). 29-38.

Utuk, Efiong S. 1989. A reassessment of the African contribution to the development of the ecumenical

movement : Edinburgh, 1910. Africa Theological Journal 8(2) : 85-103.

Participant observation

Celestial Church of Christ, Mafoluku, Parish I, Wulemotu Agbo Road, Off International Airport Road,

Mafoluku, Oshodi, Lagos, Nigeria. St. Paul’s Anglican Church, 1-9 St. Paul’s Church Street, Mafoluku,

Oshodi, Lagos, Nigeria. Visited by researcher on Sunday 1st May, 2005.

Church of God Mission International Inc., Victory Miracle Centre, 10 Oludegun Street, Off International

Airport Road, Mafoluku, Lagos, Nigeria. Visited by researcher on Sunday 10th April 2005.

St. Jude Catholic Church, 47 Old Ewu Road, Mafoluku, Oshodi, Lagos, Nigeria. St. Paul’s Anglican Church,

1-9 St. Paul’s Church Street, Mafoluku, Oshodi, Lagos, Nigeria. Visited by researcher on Sunday 24th

April, 2005.

St. Paul’s Anglican Church, 1-9 St. Paul’s Church Street, Mafoluku, Oshodi, Lagos, Nigeria. Visited by

researcher on Sunday 17th April, 2005.

© Oliver Harding 2008

Source by Oliver Harding

George Washington and His Premonitions of the Three Perils Facing the New Republic

George Washington was not only the first President of the United States, but also wrote before his death, about a visit by an angel warning him of the three perils the new nation faced. This was written down and attached with his will. To a curious reader, perhaps symbolic of certain events that occurred long after his death, with one peril still remaining unfulfilled.

George Washington had retreated for the winter to Valley Forge, snowed in and still fighting a war. He retired one afternoon to his office, and claimed an angel visited him, showing him the three perils, the new nation faced in the future.

What were these three perils?

1. The First Peril

The Angel pointed to both Europe and the United States, whilst between them at sea, a cloud rose, and the President saw two nations fighting, his own, and a European nation. This probably was the Revolutionary War.

2. The Second Peril

America was now sprouting new villages and Towns, whilst the angel sprinkled water over these settlements, a dark cloud came over from Africa. And George Washington heard the words,” Union,” as the angel laid a split flag across the map of the new nation. This to most of us, this could symbolize the first American civil war.

3. The Third Peril

The Angel blew a trumpet, sprinkling water over the continents of Africa, Asia, Europe and North America. A dark cloud gathered over these continents, as armies marched through them, and the United states was also invaded The sky lit up to become a hundred ‘Suns,” as the angel was reputed to say,” Son of the Republic, look and learn,” as the North American invasion fails and the remains of the armies that fought remain victorious, in the ruins of a post-war country.

Obviously, the third peril claims at some point there could be a war involving, Africa, Asia, Europe and the United States. Whilst, opposing armies invade and fight in each other territories, the USA is itself invaded. The suns could represent strategic nuclear strikes, during this great war.

These three so-called perils not only were the final mystery behind the first President, but to many “proof” that even the most respected, and some say powerful men, believe in the occult. George Washington was not the first or the last president that has spoken of “angels”, or “ghosts.” and had premonitions.

Source by Mark W. Medley

Channeling – An Explanation On How A Medium Can Channel Spirits

The Definition of Channeling

Channeling, in psychic language, it is the process of receiving and transmitting information to and from an external invisible entity or a source in an ‘altered state of consciousness’ or trance. This state is thought-based, self-induced, or triggered by an expert. The channel loses his body-consciousness and attains a level of intelligence which is almost in sync with that of the spirits. The result is that the psychics are able to communicate with the spirits. The spirits may be good or evil. They may belong to the dead or the living; they may be of the angels or demons.

How do Mediums Facilitate Communication with Spirits

Bereft of the physical constraints, the consciousness or the spirit of the channel can fly about anywhere and communicate with the other spirits that know the ‘truth’ or ‘the solution’ to the problems, which, otherwise, remain intractable due to our limited physical vision and mobility. The channel can sit, lie down on a couch, stand or move about the room, talk even humorously with those around him, look with his eyes wide open, make gestures, and yet he does not have his body- consciousness. As an ordinary human being, you cannot utilize your five senses, look or go beyond the wall or veil, but as a channel, your spirit or consciousness can cross over into the metaphysical world, witness and interact with the invisible entities.

Levels of Channeling Ability

Besides interacting with the entities of the lower level, a channel, depending upon the level of the evolution of his spiritual consciousness or the psychic ability, can communicate with higher spirits or guides and seek their advice about problems which not only have individual, but universal relevance. The channels, in fact, receive signals or messages and interpret or translate them in normal human language. The accuracy of their interpretation depends upon their psychic ability. The predictions of mediums like Edgar Cayce are a case in a point. You surrender the control of the body and let the higher spirit, as per its characteristics, take a temporary possession of it. Interestingly, the channel, upon its return to his normal physical state, remains unaware of what was said or what had transpired. In this way, the channel with his psychic eye can see the coming events and make predictions about the bigger pictures of life like earth quakes, social, and political upheavals, the Russian Revolution, devastating oceanic tides, hurricanes. These predictions can benefit mankind at large.

Tools that may be used by Mediums or Channels

The channels, depending upon their expertise, tap many tools to ‘channelize’ their psychic energy. They may use tarot cards, crystal balls, gems or dream analysis. They use their psychic abilities of clairvoyance, clairaudience, and clairsentience. Deeply sensitive, blessed and compassionate souls utilize their psychic abilities to empathize with those who have lost their way, or the ones who are confused and depressed due to their problems. Psychic channels can communicate with the spirits of the dead, which sometimes constantly hover around those whom they fiercely loved or hated when they were in human body and their desires remained unfulfilled when they were alive.

How to Develop the Ability to Channel

Practically everyone has the psychic ability to be a channel to a certain degree. If you wish to be a psychic, you need to have the desire, commitment, and perseverance. This is a pursuit of occult nature. A blind and untutored attempt may cause harm to the subject. It is, therefore, always advisable to work under the guidance of some master psychic medium. There are, however, certain steps which you may take on your own even before seeking the guidance. You can start by finding a peaceful and quiet venue in the morning. Sit on the floor in the lotus pose or meditation style. Try to feel relaxed. Breathe in deeply a few times and try to empty your mind of all the clutter when you inhale or exhale. All this time, try to focus on your in-coming and out going breath. This will help you develop the power of concentration. Once you have attained a comfortable level of concentration, try to contact a master psychic to proceed further.

Source by Lea Anderson

Lucid Dreaming Myths – 5 Popular Lucid Dreaming Myths Debunked

People are said to be lucid dreaming when they are aware that they are dreaming. In other words, a lucid dreamer has the ability to be fully conscious when he/she is dreaming. Since lucid dreamers are aware of the fact that they are dreaming, they can control their dreams and dream exactly what they wish.

Before attempting to control your dreams, you must know that there is a big difference between lucid dreaming and dream control. People who are capable of the former need not necessarily be able to control their dreams and dream whatever they wish. But usually dream control follows lucid dreaming and astral projection follows dream control.

The phenomenon of lucid dreaming, however, is associated with a number of myths. Most of them are created by people who do not know much about the subject. An attempt has been made here to debunk 5 popular myths.

1. Lucid dreaming is an invention of the New Age.

There is nothing “new” about this kind of dreaming. It isn’t an “invention” either. This is something that can be defined by the dreamers themselves because it is an exclusive and subjective experience. It certainly isn’t typical of the New Age. One can say instead that the phenomenon of having a lucid dream is human and as natural as eating or sleeping.

2. Only escapists have lucid dreams.

The above statement is absurd. Lucid dreamers do not do so because they want to escape real life. In fact, you can have a lucid dream only when you are asleep. Since everybody sleeps, it is not escapism.

Having a lucid dream is not escapism just as sleeping is not escapism. One cannot escape real life just by watching soaps on TV or reading a novel. Becoming lucid in one’s dreams is also not escaping from real life.

However, if a person sleeps just to have lucid dreams because he/she prefers this to sleeping, then he/she can be accused of escapism.

3. Having lucid dreams is an occult practice.

If eating is an occult practice, so is having a lucid dream! This is a natural happening; it is neither dark nor “sinful.” The occult has nothing to do with it.

4. Having lucid dreams is difficult.

Don’t give up even before you start because someone told you that it is too difficult or that it is only for the gifted. Even beginners can become lucid in their dream after the first few attempts. Many people report to succeed after the first attempt.

5. You can’t lucid dream if you can’t remember your dreams.

Enhancing dream recall is one of suggested ways to learn lucid dreaming; it isn’t a prerequisite. To put it differently, you need not have to learn to recall your dreams before you can lucid dream.

Source by Abhishek Agarwal

Webster’s Imagery in The Duchess of Malfi

John Webster, a well-known playwright and dramatist is especially known for his brilliant work like “The Duchess of Malfi” and “The White Devil” famous for his grotesque imagery and macabre logic of writing, he takes his audience into a gritty and grim voyage to a world littered with corpses, death and blood. There is intense realism in his writing embellished with the imaginative use of words. It can be categorized into sententious writing using motifs of tempests and darkness to glorify its very essential impulses.

In ”The Duchess of Malfi” published in 1623 he has created a world of negativity, shifting allegiances and suspicious underlying motives. Bosola, the spy villain calls this world a “sensible hell” which implies a paradoxical state of being and evil generates evil and there is no mutual reciprocity of good and evil. To substantiate his caustic views Webster uses stark, poignant images of misery and hardships (“I am armed gainst misery”) blood-lust, the digging up of graves by Ferdinand and cupping glasses. What is common in all these images is that there is a sense of mystery, secrecy and devilish nuances. He has also dealt with the themes of incest, lycanthropy and madness as subtexts to his main plot structure. He can be contrasted with Shakespeare in his work “The Italian Werewolf” where the wolf frequently appears on stage. David Cecil remarks that Webster presents us with a world that is between good and bad and in this lifetime at least he presents the evil to be more powerful.

The power of his imagery also showcases his literary talent since he is able to present to the reader characters like Bosola, who is the malcontent and is heterogeneous for his motives and the duchess who neither seems to conform nor assert. These are characters we can neither approve of nor dismiss. His handling of plot structure is also remarkable since it moves smoothly even when there is geographical shifting of locales. He displays his poetical and philosophical prowess simultaneously which is visible in dialogues spoken by Bosola when he is in conversation with the old lady. The misogyny is clearly apparent in metaphors of ‘lice’, ‘witchcraft’, ‘stench’ and various other animalistic references to describe the physical appearances of women. He states his vision of life as “let good men with good deeds… “

This shows that the power of imagery not only appeases our senses but also our intellect. Charles R Forker avers that Webster is one of the few dramatists who create distinct psychological portraits of characters. Similarly when the duchess talks of the value of a person using examples of “dog fish” and the “salmon” there is a lot of in-depth theory behind the seemingly simplistic images. What she actually wants convey is that good appearances do not entail good wealth. Webster also makes Ferdinand speak his mind when he talks of love, death and reputation using images of battles, plague and shepherds. Another important image is of the “ring” which the duchess slips on Antonio’s finger and symbolizes the circle of life and death which is the reality of every individual. also “fire” which is portrayed as a ravaging force (“burn in sulphur”) and “blood” which is evident in the multiple deaths that occur in the play. Webster’s imagery therefore cannot be attributed a single adjective stating an absolute, it rather seeks to convey moral, social and psychological underpinnings using common everyday references. Although his images resonate sinister darkness and hysterical frames of mind. They are devices to convey a probably gothic and gloomy world with occasional flashes of light.

Irving Ribner comments “the play is an agonized search for finding order in the chaotic world of Jacobean skepticism”. Jacobean theatre dealt largely with revenge tragedies picturing murders, downfall of empires for example Marlowe’s “the Jew of Malta”, strategies and brutalities. though ”The Duchess of Malfi” created controversy when it was first staged in 1614 due to its focalization, nevertheless it is remembered even today for its wisdom of structure, realm of life and the gory details of its images. To conclude Irving Ribner avers that “this world is also not the total picture”

Source by Sanjhee Gianchandani

How to Grow in the Anointing and Power of God

Many people want more power off God and want to be able to do signs and wonders but are not prepared to put the hard work into it and not really interested in giving their whole life to Jesus. If you really want to increase your anointing and want to give your whole life for it this article is for you.

One day I was in a new Age bookshop looking at books on spells and on witchcraft and thinking of buying one. This was 17 years ago. Jesus said to my heart. “Get out of here and don’t buy a book. You think you are doing research so you can talk to witches better, but you want to cross over and move in their power as you are sick of waiting for my power.”

One thing you can say about Jesus is when he makes a point there is not much sense in an argument. I tried to tell Him that He was wrong, and yet how silly is that? Telling Jesus He was wrong.

7 years ago I was looking for the power of the anointing. Today I possess it in a little measure. Not as much as the people on the world stage, but quite a lot more than the average Sunday worshipping Christian. If I was going to boil down what I did to get here down to a few points this is what they are

Become set apart for God

There is not a lot of teaching out there about this, or if there is a lot of teaching, I just don’t seem to see it in my travels.

To be set apart for God, you have to have purpose, destiny and vision even though those three seem like the same thing.

Your whole life has to be focused on doing God’s will for your life.

Many people are stopped right here as they do not know their purpose on earth and God’s will for their life so it is hard to be focused on something that they don’t know about.

The will of God for your life is most often what you would love to do for God. If you ask yourself if time and money were no barriers or training was not a barrier what would you like to do for God.

All my life I wanted to be a preacher.

I have only preached 3 times from a pulpit and I am 43. I have wanted to do this for 29 years and all I have to show are 600+ articles/sermons and 400 videos on YouTube. You can see, that I have done a lot and yet I am still not doing what I was destined to do to my full capacity.

Once you find out what you want to do for God, you need to take small steps toward doing it.

Writing my first article was a small step. Getting 200 done was a larger step and passing the 600 mark was more and more. Getting a video camera and doing my first video was a larger step and then doing more and more was more of a step.

I did ten 1 hour teachings and put them on DVD and watched them and was fascinated at how powerfully the Holy Spirit spoke through me.

When you work out what you need to do, when you know the first step, you need to do that.

Secondly a good way to be set apart is to spend your time doing things that have more to do with God and His will in your life and less time doing things that are not Godly. This can mean stopping watching the amount of TV that you do, watching less DVD’s and reading less Newspapers and magazines that are full of stuff we don’t need to know about.

Spend time in the Word of God, in books that are going to equip you to do God’s will in your life and watching edifying videos that will equip YouTube it is possible to spend many hours learning things about God and his purposes.

Another way to bet set apart for God is to be set apart with our money. Finding a way to spend 10% or 20% or higher of our income on good things for God Kingdom that are going to good things and not prosperity teachers is a good way to be set apart.

Obey the Holy Spirit

The Holy Spirit wants to direct all of us. If you cannot hear the Holy Spirit that can be fixed by going back and doing the last thing you think God told you to do that you did not do. When you obey that last direction you will get your next direction.

Being set apart for God and living out your purpose can only be really done well if you can hear from the Holy Spirit. Make sure that you obey as through obedience to Christ you will grow from the slave Master relationship with Jesus to a point where you are a friend of God and He is directing you and giving you a measure of His power and anointing.

God wants to be able to trust you with His power and anointing. For this power and anointing to drop in you therefore you need to and be:

– Know your purpose

– Know each step the Holy Spirit is giving you and doing it.

– Be only interested in serving God and not the world or your own passions.

– Be trustworthy with real power

– Have a good record of doing what you are told to do by God.

I hope this has helped you. My prayers are with you.

Matthew Robert Payne

PS One very big key ingredient to a strong anointing that no one likes doing is time spent in prayer. Until you love the Lord enough to spend a lot of time with Him you will not walk in strong power.

Source by Matthew Robert Payne

Spells On Love

It is human nature to crave for love, attention and recognition. Some may feel desperate, thinking that nobody loves her or him. And often, despite the overflowing love from friends and family members, they still crave to be loved by the opposite sex. Of course, to be loved and to love someone deeply in a romantic relationship can be one of the most wonderful feelings in the world.

However, love can fade. After finding the one you are longing for, love can somehow eventually lose its power in the process. Perhaps there is the presence of someone else, or love just faded suddenly and it is unexplainable.

Love has always been a good feeling. With love, we can reach out to others in need. With love, we can help ourselves feel better. But there are times that love can betray us, and eat us whole. It preys on us silently, and slowly but surely, love can make us broken. That is why some people resort to love spells.

Spells on love have a lot of types, and they are usually cast to make a love or relationship under control.. Also, love spells can help you in guarding your inner self towards unwanted feelings and can also instill positive vibes in your life. If you want someone fall in love with you, try this spell at midnight. Cast it while combing your hair in front of the picture of your heart’s desire. When you cast this spell, turn off the lights. Do it alone, one candle beside the mirror and the picture. When everything is ready, with all your mind focused, faithfully comb your hair thirteen times and say these words:

“Ie eous yesseous mazareus yessedekeus O loving soul, really make love so true ad vitam ducere novit ovis!”

Performing this ritual and spell requires conviction and religious belief that it will come true. This is not a joke. After casting the spell on the mirror, continue combing your hair thirteen times and wish with all your heart in front of the mirror. Kiss the picture and put it under your pillow as you sleep for the night. Do this every night for thirteen nights and you will see the progress! Do not underestimate the power of words and spell. Love spells can make your heart’s desire come true. Be a believer. Nothing is impossible!

Now, if you are in desperation to make someone love you and adore you strongly, you might be wanting to utter this word in front of him or her. This is a spell that will enchant the person without him or her noticing it. But, for some simple reasons, flirting and attitude counts.

This spell is not going to be effective if you do not follow the languages of love. First of all, you have to do the Act of Service. Do simple things that will help and facilitate the person you like much, like offering a seat, opening the door, or lending the person something like a pen. Just do this act of service: simple but thoughtful. The-Act of Appreciation is the second language of love. Appreciate the person you like in simple terms, like noticing his tie. Say something that will make the person feel good. Complement is a very simple witchcraft that nobody knows. Those are just a few languages of love. Make sure that you have already established rapport before saying these simple love spells, and they will surely work!

Finally, the last spell is to simply say a word in front of the person when you are alone with him/her. The word is: “shijii”. Say it four times a day when alone with the person. If he or she asks for the meaning, smile and say: “Shijii means you are gorgeous.” And even if it doesn’t buy him or her, continue doing the languages of love. This will enchant the person and will work out internally before the person admits that he or she adores you! Believe it or not, witchcraft is not just on rituals and weird demonic chanting. It is alluring, it has languages of deeds and it is very controlling once you master its art!

Source by Frank M Stevens